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What Are the Characteristics of Five-Axis Machining Centers?

What are the five axes of a five-axis machining center?

The five axes of a five axis machining center typically refer to the ability of a CNC machine tool to move a part or tool simultaneously on five different CNC axes. Standard 3-axis milling is done along the X, Y and Z axes. These three linear axes are the directions in which the spindle or part (depending on the machine) can move: X-axis: left to right, Y-axis: front to back, Z-axis: up and down. Five axis machining centers also use two rotary axes: A-axis, B-axis, and C-axis. The A-axis rotates around the X-axis, B-axis rotates around the Y-axis, and C-axis rotates around the Z-axis.

Using rotary axes means that the machine can move the part or cutting tool (spindle head) around one of the previously established linear axes. Different types of machining equipment will use different combinations of axes (A and B, B and C, or A and C), each configuration is suitable for different types of machining.

The five axis machining process is similar to the 3-axis CNC machining process. However, it has some very important features that offer these two additional axes and greater cutting flexibility. In a five axis machining center, its spindle and tool move along three axes. However, there are also rotations around the X-axis (called A-axis), Y-axis (B-axis), and Z-axis (C-axis). Five axis machining centers can use any two of these rotary axes, depending on their configuration.

Features of five axis machining centers

Five axis machining centers have the following features:

Five axis machining centers have higher static and dynamic stiffness, compressing the processing time of single workpieces. The compression of single workpiece processing time of the machining center includes the development of new materials with higher cutting speeds, as well as the need to use automatic tool changing and speed up handling operations such as clamping and changing, greatly reducing the auxiliary time.

Have smaller thermal deformation. During the machining process, the machining center is affected by internal and external heat sources such as cutting heat and frictional heat, and different parts will undergo varying degrees of thermal deformation, which will affect the processing accuracy of the workpiece. Due to the fact that this machining center can greatly improve this problem, there is little thermal deformation.

Small friction between moving parts and gaps in transmission. The movement of the worktable on the five axis machining center is measured in terms of pulse equivalent, and the worktable moves at very low speeds during tool setting, requiring the worktable to respond to instructions issued by the CNC device. The frictional force decreases as the movement speed increases, effectively avoiding low-speed crawling phenomena and improving the motion balance and positioning accuracy of the vertical machining center. In addition, the pitch compensation device is used to compensate for the clearance in the feed transmission, eliminating gaps in the feed transmission.

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